From The Alpha and the Omega - Chapter Three
by Jim A. Cornwell, Copyright © 1995, all rights reserved

" Biblical Information of Giants (8,850 B.C. to 1,300 B.C.) "

Annunaki (Anak, Anakim, Anakites, Nephilim, Arba, Rephaites). Anu, Pleiades, An, Anshar, Kishar, Antu, Ki, Gibil, Nusku, Gulu, Ninmah, Nergal, Cuthah, Kuta, Gudua, Gudea, Imdugud, Ningursu, Danu.


Giants before the Flood

   Then the Elohim (Hebrew idiom of a plural of magnitude or majesty (Gen. 1:1), used of heathen gods, or of angels or judges as representatives of God, Elohim is plural in sense as well as form.    It’s etymology, the most likely roots mean either "be strong," or "be in front," the power and preeminence of God; as to EL (Heb. ‘el, God) it is a generic word for God in the Semitic languages: Aramaic elah, Arabic ilah, Akkadian ilu.    In the OT, el is used over two hundred times for God.    El has a plural, elim, occasionally elhm in Ugaritic; but the Hebrews needed no plural, though a plural term, ‘elohim, was their regular name for God.    The root from which ‘el was derived may have come from ‘wl, "to be strong"; from an Arabic root ‘ul, "to be infront of" as a leader from a Hebrew root ‘lh to which both ‘el and ‘elohim belonged, with the meaning "strong"; from the preposition el, "to be infront of"; and using the same prepositions, as putting forth the idea of God as the goal for which all men seek.    A truly satisfactory theory is impossible, because ‘el and the other terms for God, ‘elohim and ‘eloha, are all prehistoric in origin.) make their return in Genesis 6:2, when the "sons of God" have intercourse with the "daughters of men," ..."and they took them wives of all which they chose."     The results of this event beget Lamech (Heb. lemekh, meaning undetermined), father of Noah, based his faith on the promised deliverance from the Adamic curse of Gen. 3:14-19, he foresees, even if faintly, the coming of One of his seed (cf. 1 Chron. 1:3; Luke 3:36) who will remove that curse (cf. Rom. 8:18-25).    Jared was Enochs' father, who through tradition dictated to his son about 5800 B.C. "The Lamentations of Jared" how Gods came to the earth and led astray his own tribe of Adam and those tribes of Cain also.

   From Adam to Noah there were seven major Patriarchs born, Noah being the eighth person as shown in 2 Peter 2:5.    Note that Cain and Abel are not counted for a total of ten, but Seth was the first.

   Uta-Napishtim (Babylonian Noah) was the tenth King of Babylon before the Flood.    The Sumerian King List mentions five cities existing before the Flood; Eridu, Bad-tinia, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak.

  • The first king was Alorus, who ruled for 120 sari, or 432,000 years before the Flood (note 162,000 years).
  • Abulim reigned for 28,800 years.
  • Abolga reigned 36,000 years.
  • Two more kings reigned for 64,800 years.

       These represented the five cities.    While in Eridu Kings from Heaven reigned for 64,800 years before the Flood.

  • If eight kings ruled for 241,200 years then the last five kings totaled 140,400 years.

   Moreover, a Chaldean priest, Berossos, writing in Greek ca. 289 B.C., reported that according to Mesopotamian belief 432,000 years elapsed between the crowning of the first earthly king and the coming of the deluge.

   The early Sumerian king list names eight kings with a total of 241,200 years from the time when "the kingship was lowered from heaven" to the time when "the Flood swept" over the land once more "the kingship was lowered from heaven" (Thorkild Jacobsen, The Sumerian King List, 1939, pp. 71, 77).

   A Biblical analysis of the Masoretic text of the ages of the Patriarchs when their sons were born shows only 1,656 years passed from the Creation to Adam’s Fall until the Deluge and Shem’s fatherhood.

   Genesis 6:4 "There were giants in the earth in those days..., when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men (Nephilim) which were of old, men of renown."

  • "Sons of God appears to refer to angels (Job 1:6, 2:1 "a day when they came before the Lord, and Satan was among them"):
  • Job 38:7 "When the morning stars sang together, and they all shouted for joy";
  • Psalms 89:6 "… who among them can be likened unto the Lord?").    Genesis 6:1-2 may likewise involve angels (in this case they are fallen ones) or they may be demon-possessed individuals, but others view these "sons of God" as kings/rulers/princes.

   Author W. Raymond Drake states that in the Kabalistic Book of Enoch the Giants engendered by the Fallen Angels and daughters of men turned against mankind before the Flood.


Noah and the Giants (Anakim or Annunaki) after the Flood.

   Noah's three sons may have brought with them wives, who were not pure descendants of Adam but those of the Anakim (Heb. ‘anaqim, sons of Anak, Heb. ‘anaq, long-necked) or possibly the Canaanites.    Or else after Ham and Japheth eventually became the ancestors of the "goyim," where they combined with the Anakim who survived the Flood.    The early Sumerian texts called them Anunaki, "those who came from heaven to earth."    The Anakim as in Genesis 6:4 they are the sons of the sons of God, they are called the Nephilim (uncertain etymology) or giants (Heb. rapha, raphah, Heb. gibbor, mighty, Rephaim of Canaan ancestor of Og, king of Bashan, Emims of the Moabites, Zamzummims of Ammonites, Heb. murmurers, Zuzites (Zuzim) in Gen. 14:5) who were of old, men of renown.    This crossbreeding may be the reason why the ancestors believe that sexual relations could affect one's health.    One might even suspect that the Anakim were possibly the Greek Gods of mythology "fallen angels" the original Hebrew "B’nai Elohim" some who did not survive the Flood.


Anaq as in Anakim verses Hanokh as in Enoch

   Some Talmudic commentaries stated that the Anakim were the sons of Enoch.    Enoch (Heb. hanokh, consecrated, Gr. Henoch).    Genesis and the Talmud both suggest that the Giants, who resented God for destroying their ancestors, meddled in the affairs of mankind.

   Eventually Nimrod seen in Genesis 10:8-10 "And Cush begat Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one (first king) in the earth.    He was a mighty hunter before the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD."    Nimrod (Heb. nimrodh, assumed "rebel"), a descendent of Ham, was responsible for building the city of Babel (Babylon).    This individual was the beginning of the kingdom in Babylonia, and he became the founder of Nineveh and other cities in Assyria.    He became distinguished as a hunter, ruler, and builder.    He lived for an undetermined amount of centuries after the Flood, and was the grandson of Ham.    He was a bold man, and of great strength of hand.    He persuaded men not to ascribe to God, in order to bring them into a constant dependence upon his own power.    He swore to build a tower too high for the waters to be able to reach! Thus avenging himself on God for destroying their forefathers!

   Many legends have grown up around the name of Nimrod, some claiming that he was identical with "Ninus," an early Babylonian king or god (king of Assyria, founder of Nineveh, known in history as Shamshi-Adad V of 811 B.C.).    Again, some have associated Nimrod with the building of the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1-9).    Others have identified him with the ancient king of Babylonia, Gilgamesh (Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh, 5th king of the 1st Dynasty of Erech after the Flood), but there is no proof that the two were identical.    The Talmud stresses that while Esau (Heb. ‘esaw, hairy) spent his days hunting and that an arrow from his bow killed the giant Nimrod (legends of "Ninus" or "Gilgamesh").    Did Nimrod finally die after all this time from Genesis 10 through 26?

   Also attributed to him and his people were the building of Erech, Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar.    Asshur, son of Nimrod, built Nineveh, Rehaboth, Calah and Resen.

   After the Flood in Sumer, Emmerkar, Lugalbanda (Lugulbanda) and Gilgamesh (estimated at 3,000 B.C.), were among the first kings of the city of Erech.    The second, third, and fifth rulers of the First Dynasty of Erech, which followed the First Dynasty of Kish, which received the "kingship" from heaven immediately after the Flood.    Some believe that this flood occurred in 4,000 B.C. and was a different one than compiled in the Genesis account.    Lugalbanda was a god and shepherd king of Uruk (Erech) where he was worshipped for over a thousand years.    Possibly the third king of Uruk after the great flood.    Gilgamesh (Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh, 5th king of the 1st Dynasty of Erech after the Flood) presented Lugulbanda with the horns of the Bull of Heaven.

   Around 3200 B.C. Menes was consolidating Upper and Lower Egypt, Sumer was prospering, and then the Semitic peoples appeared on the scene with Sargon (2550-2400 B.C.) conquering Erech (Uruk), Ur, E-Ninmar, Lagash, to the mountains of Elam, Crete and uniting the area.    Sargon, king of Agade, vice regent of the goddess Ishtar, king of Kish, pashishu (a class of priest who prepared and applied ointments) of the god Anu, King of the Land, great ishakku (chief priest) of the god Enlil.

  • Also called "sons [children] of Anak" (Heb. ‘anaq, long-necked) a descendant of Arba (Josh. 15:13) and ancestor of the Anakites (Anakim, Heb. ‘anaqim, Num. 13:22, 28, 33).
    • Arba (Heb. ‘arba) the father of Anak, and founder of the city Kiriath Arba of Hebron (Josh 14:15; 15:13).    The spies compared them to the giants of Genesis 6:4 (RSV, NIV, Nephilim); and possibly the Rephaites (Deut. 2:11, RSV, NIV).
    • In Numbers 13:22 the spies sent by Moses into Negeb and to Mount Hebron, ran into
      • Ahiman (Heb. ‘ahiman, my brother is a gift),
      • Sheshai (Heb. sheshay)
      • and Talmai (Heb. talmay, the founder of this family, note see Arba), the descendants of Anak,

      with the references to looking like grasshoppers compared to them and were eventually driven out by Caleb and killed.

  •    Emites (Heb. ‘emim, Moabites called them "Terrors"; KJV, Emim) were the original inhabitants of Moab (Deut. 2:10-11, refer to Ar [Heb. ‘ar, a city or district in Moab]).    A powerful advanced civilization who were also tall of stature, so that they were, like the Anakim, called giants.    In Genesis 14:5, Abram’s time the Emites were defeated by the Mesopotamian invaders of Kedorlaomer (KJV Chedorlaomer was king of Elam) in Shaveh Kiriathaim (Heb. shaweh qiryathayim, the Plain of Kiriathaim, i.e., "twin cities"), a plain east of the Dead Sea (cf. Num 32:37).
  • Elam, (Sumerian inscriptions called it Numma, high mountain people, Elamtu in Akkadian text, Heb. ‘elam, shushan, Gr. Susiana, Susa) was south of Media and east of Babylonia, its name came from the Semites (Gen. 10:22) but was inhabited chiefly by Indo-Europeans; later it became part of Persia, modern Iran.
    • During this time Amraphel (Heb. ‘amraphel) was king of Shinar (Babylonia)
    • and Arioch (Eri-aku) was king of Ellasar (Heb. ellasar) in Syria, is the ancient Babylonian Larsa (with the last three letters transposed in Heb.), modern Senkereh, SE Babylon, between Erech and Ur.
  • Also a king named Tidal (Heb. tidh’al) was unidentified, mentioned only in Genesis 14:1, 9 where he is called "king of Goiim" ("nations," KJV) and is allied with three other kings, with Kedorlaomer king of Elam as the leader (14:5, 17).    This was the group that Abram routed in a night raid to rescue Lot (14:15-16).
  • In Genesis 14:2, 8 these four kings made war with
    • Bera (Heb. bera’, gift) king of Sodom, Sodoma (Heb. sedhom, Gr. Sodoma),
    • Birsha king of Gommorrah (Heb. ‘amorah, Gr. Gomorra, submersion, located in the Vale of Siddim),
    • Shinab (Heb. shin’av) king of Admah (Heb. ‘adhmah, red earth, a Canaanite city),
    • Shemeber (Heb. shem’ever) king of Zeboiim (Heb. tsevo’im, gazelles, hyena),
    • and the king of Bela (Heb. bela’, destruction, belay, Belah) or Zoar (Heb. tso’ar, little, alone escaped the destruction by fire from heaven by a prayer from Lot, an ancient Canaanite city called Bela),

    all near the Dead Sea, or Salt Sea (Valley of Siddom, Heb. ‘emeq hasiddim, the valley of the fields).

  • Goiim (goy’im) was also the area of an unnamed king defeated by Joshua (Josh. 12:23, "Goyim") Harosheth Haggoyim a town of "mixed races."
    • Heathen or Pagan (Heb. goy, pl. goyim, Gr. ethnos, people, nation).    In Hebrew the plural ending is "-im" as a suffix it signifies nations, tribes, cities, or towns rather than individuals.    [Abram + im].
    • Gentile (Heb. goy, plural goyim, nation, people), Goy means a non-Israelite, heathen or the pagan world.

       In the NT, nations the Greek ethnos is equal to goy, while people is laos and is equal to the Hebrew ‘am.    When God changed Jacob’s name to Israel (Heb. Yisra’el, he strives with God and prevails) the Hebrew word ‘am is the ordinary term for Israel, the people of God.

  • Rephaites, Rephaim (Heb. repha’im, mighty) a name of a giant people, called also Rephainer (Gen. 14:5; 15:20 "the dispossed" KJV), who lived in Canaan before the time of Abram.    They were like the Anakim in Deut. 2:11, 20.
    • Og (Heb. ’ogh), Amorite king of Bashan, was a descendant of the Rephaites (Josh. 12:4; 13:12).    Og, the last king of the race, was defeated and killed by the Israelites at Edrei in the time of Moses (Num 21:33-35; Deut 3:1-7).    His sarcophagus of iron (black basaltic rock) was nearly fourteen feet long and six feet wide, which was said to be from Rabbath-Ammon (Ammonite), today Amman, capital of Jordan.
  • Zamzummite, Zamzummim (Heb. zamzummin, murmurers) found only in Deut. 2:20 and described as "a people strong and numerous, and ...tall" (Deut. 2:21). They were a race of giants, called Rephaim (2 Sam 5:18, 22), who lived in a spot east of the Jordan.    They may be the same as the Zuzites (Zuzim) in Genesis 14:5.
  • Zuzim, Zuzites (Heb. zuzim) a primitive race of giants conquered by Kedorlaomer and his allies at Ham, an unknown place east of the Jordan; in the days of Abram (Genesis 14:5; Zuzites NIV; Zuzim JB, MLB, NASB, NEB, RSV; Zuzims KJV).

   Remnants of the Anakim remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod even in the time of Joshua (1500-1390 B.C.) as seen in Joshua 11:21 "And at that time came Joshua, and cut off the Anakims from the mountains, from Hebron, from Debir, from Anab, from all the mountains of Judah, and from all the mountains of Israel: Joshua destroyed them utterly with their cities." 11:22 "There was none of the Anakims left in the land of the children of Israel: only in Gaza, in Gath, and in Ashdod, there remained (remnants)."

   Joshua's battle to annihilate them from the land set the future stage of events.
   David was the second king of Judah and Israel between 1,010-962 B.C.,
he slew the Philistine giant Goliath (Heb. golyath, was from Gath), who was nine feet tall, possibly eleven depending on the length of a cubit, and probably was one of the Anakites. (Num. 13:33; Josh 11:22.)
The book of Samuel (2 Samuel 21:15-20.) also tells of other Rephaim.    David and his men also killed three of them besides Goliath:

  • Benob (Ishbi-benob, Heb. yishbi venov) whose spear weighed three hundred shekels;
  • Saph (Heb. saph, a basin, threshold, a Philistine giant, of the race of Rapha,
  • "Sippai" in 1 Chron 20:4) who died in the battle of Gob;
  • and the brother of Goliath, the Gittite (of Gath), a phenomenal man whose name is not given "a giant with six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot, twenty-four in all."

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